Malaria


Disease Description


Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites. The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, called "malaria vectors." There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans, and 2 of these species â?? P. falciparum and P. vivax â?? pose the greatest threat. P. falciparum is the most prevalent malaria parasite on the African continent. It is responsible for most malaria-related deaths globally. P. vivax is the dominant malaria parasite in most countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa.

Cause


Malaria is an acute febrile illness. In a non-immune individual, symptoms usually appear 10�??15 days after the infective mosquito bite. The first symptoms �?? fever, headache, and chills�?? may be mild and difficult to recognize as malaria. If not treated within 24 hours, P. falciparum malaria can progress to severe illness, often leading to death. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one or more of the following symptoms: severe anaemia, respiratory distress in relation to metabolic acidosis, or cerebral malaria. In adults, multi-organ involvement is also frequent. In malaria endemic areas, people may develop partial immunity, allowing asymptomatic infections to occur.

Symptoms


Malaria is an acute febrile illness. In a non-immune individual, symptoms usually appear 10â??15 days after the infective mosquito bite. The first symptoms â?? fever, headache, and chillsâ?? may be mild and difficult to recognize as malaria. If not treated within 24 hours, P. falciparum malaria can progress to severe illness, often leading to death. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one or more of the following symptoms: severe anaemia, respiratory distress in relation to metabolic acidosis, or cerebral malaria. In adults, multi-organ involvement is also frequent. In malaria enDietary Considerations In Malaria Diet is of utmost importance in the treatment of malaria. To begin with, the patient should fast on orange juice and water for a few days, depending on the severity of the fever. After the fever has subsided, the patient should be placed on an exclusive fresh-fruit diet for the first few days. Milk may then be added to the diet. Thereafter, the patient may gradually embark upon a well-balanced diet of natural foods, with emphasis on fresh fruits, and raw vegetables. Other Measures In Malaria A warm-water enema should be administered daily during the juice and water fast to cleanse the bowels. The best way to reduce temperature naturally during the course of the fever is by means of a cold pack, which can be applied to the whole body. This pack is made by wringing out a sheet or any other large square piece of linen material in cold water, wrapping it right round the body and legs of the patient (twice round would be best), and then covering it completely with a small blanket or similar warm material. This pack should be applied every three hours during the day while the temperature is high and kept on for an hour or so. Hot-water bottles may be kept on the feet and against the sides of the body. Malaria can be prevented by protection against mosquito bites, cleanliness of surrounding areas, and ensuring that there is no pool of stagnant water lying around.demic areas, people may develop partial immunity, allowing asymptomatic infections to occur.

Treatment


1. GRAPEFRUIT: Grapefruit is one of the most effective home remedies for malaria. It should be taken daily. It contains a natural quinine-like substance which can be extracted from the fruit by boiling a quarter of a grapefruit and straining its pulp. 2. FEVER NUT The seeds of the fever nut plant are another effective remedy for malaria. They can be obtained from a herbal. store and preserved in a phial for use when required. About six grams of these seeds should be given with a cup of water two hours before the expected onset of the paroxysm of fever, and a second dose should be given one hour after the attack. The paroxysm can thus be avoided but even if it occurs, the same procedure should be resorted to on that day and it will cut short the fever. 3. DATURA: The leaves of the datura plant are useful in the tertian type of malarial fever. About two and a half freshly-sprouted leaves of this plant should be made into a pill by rubbing them with jaggery and administered two hours before the onset of the paroxysm. 4. CINNAMON: Cinnamon is regarded as a valuable remedy in malaria. One teaspoon should be coarsely powdered and boiled in a glass of water with a pinch of pepper powder and honey. This can be used beneficially as a medicine in malaria. 5. CHIRAYATA: The herb chirayata, or chiretta, botanically known as Swertia chirata, is also beneficial in the treatment of intermittent malarial fevers. It helps in lowering the temperature. An infusion of the herb, prepared by steeping 15 gm of chirayata in 250 ml of hot water with aromatics like cloves and cinnamon, should be given in doses of 15 to 30 ml. 6. LIME AND LEMON: Lime and lemon are valuable in the quartan type of malarial fever. About three grams of lime should be dissolved in about 60 ml of water and the juice of one lemon added to it. This water should be taken before the onset of the fever. 7. ALUM: Alum is also useful in malaria. It should be roasted over a hot plate and powdered. Half a teaspoon should be taken about four hours before the expected attack and half a teaspoon every two hours after it. This will give relief. 8. HOLY BASIL: The leaves of holy basil are considered beneficial in the prevention of malaria. An infusion of a few leaves can be taken daily for this purpose. The juice of about eleven grams of leaves of holy basil mixed with three grams of powder of black pepper can be taken beneficially in the cold stage of the malarial fever. This will check the severity of the disease.

Diet & Life Style


Dietary Considerations In Malaria Diet is of utmost importance in the treatment of malaria. To begin with, the patient should fast on orange juice and water for a few days, depending on the severity of the fever. After the fever has subsided, the patient should be placed on an exclusive fresh-fruit diet for the first few days. Milk may then be added to the diet. Thereafter, the patient may gradually embark upon a well-balanced diet of natural foods, with emphasis on fresh fruits, and raw vegetables. Other Measures In Malaria A warm-water enema should be administered daily during the juice and water fast to cleanse the bowels. The best way to reduce temperature naturally during the course of the fever is by means of a cold pack, which can be applied to the whole body. This pack is made by wringing out a sheet or any other large square piece of linen material in cold water, wrapping it right round the body and legs of the patient (twice round would be best), and then covering it completely with a small blanket or similar warm material. This pack should be applied every three hours during the day while the temperature is high and kept on for an hour or so. Hot-water bottles may be kept on the feet and against the sides of the body. Malaria can be prevented by protection against mosquito bites, cleanliness of surrounding areas, and ensuring that there is no pool of stagnant water lying around.


Disease Description
Cause
Symptoms
Treatment
Diet And Life Style




Dr. Akhilesh Shrivastava
B.A.M.S. ,M.D.(Ayu)